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Kitāb Fahm al-Qur’ān by al-Muḥāsibī: Excerpt from Section titled “Comprehension of the Qur’ān” Pt. II

al-Ikhbār

Al-Muḥasibī, Al-Ḥārith Bin. Al-Aql Wa-Fahm Al-Quran. Edited by Husayn Quwwatli. Bayrut: Dar Al-Fikr Lil-Tibaah Wa-al-Tawzi, 1971, pp. 317-24.

From the Section

Concerning the Comprehension of the Qur’ān

(fī fiqh al-qur’ān)

And the Almighty and Exalted said: “Were not my signs recited to you?” Q 23:105.

And the Almighty said: “Indeed we had come to you with a book, which we expounded for you with knowledge a guide and a mercy for those who believe.  Do they look for something other than its recitation? On the day in which its recitation comes, those who forgot it before will say: ‘Indeed the messengers of our lord have come with Truth, do we have with us an intercessor who will intercede for us or will we be returned?” Q 7:53.

For when the recitation of what the Almighty and Exalted had come to them, [primarily] that which…

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La dynastie Alide des Idrissides 789–985 par Ibn Khaldoun al-Hadrami :

Histoire Islamique

Le Bain , hammam Idrisside de Volubilis est le plus ancien hammam islamique connu au Maroc et l'unique monument médiéval à l’élévation partiellement conservée. Il est situé en contrebat au sud-ouest du site, sur la rive droite de l'oued Khoumane. Des fouilles récentes ont montré que ce monument exceptionnel faisait partie du quartier général fondé par Idris Ier (r. 789-793) à l'extérieur de l'enceinte romaine. (qantara).Le Bain , hammam Idrisside de Volubilis est le plus ancien hammam islamique connu au Maroc et l’unique monument médiéval à l’élévation partiellement conservée. Il est situé en contrebat au sud-ouest du site, sur la rive droite de l’oued Khoumane. Des fouilles récentes ont montré que ce monument exceptionnel faisait partie du quartier général fondé par Idris Ier (r. 789-793) à l’extérieur de l’enceinte romaine. (qantara).

Ibn Khaldoun dans la partie consacré au tribus berbères en particulier celle des Matghara et Bani Faten nous explique le contexte tribal berbère lors de la fondation des Idrissides. :

‘Quelque temps après ces événements, Idrîs, fondateur de la dynastie idrisside, fit son apparition dans le Maghreb.

La tribu d’Auréba embrassa sa cause et entraîna, par son exemple, l’adhésion des autres peuples berbères. Behloul-Ibn-Abd-el-Ouahed, chef des Matghara , se laissa alors gagner par Ibrahîm-Ibn- el-Aghleb, gouverneur de Cairouan, et reconnut l’autorité du khalife abbasside Haroun-er-Rechîd …

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L’Émirat de Crête 824-961

Excellent overview (in French) of the history of the Andalusi emirate of Crete

Histoire Islamique

File:Crete Iraklio1 tango7174.jpg Le port d’al-khandaq , qui est de nos jours Héraklion, fondée en 824 par les ribadi de Cordoue

L’émirat de Crète est un État musulman qui exista sur cette île de la Méditerranée orientale de  820 à 961. Il fut fondé par un groupe d’Andalous exilés de Cordoue, les ribadi qui conquirent la Crète vers 824 ou en 827/828 et y édifièrent une nouvelle capitale, la ville de al Khandak (en arabe, خندق). Ce terme qui signifie « fossé », tire son origine du fossé défensif creusé pour défendre la cité. (Chandax, actuelle Héraklion.)

La Crète subit un premier raid en 654, lors du règne de l’empereur Constant II (641-668). En 674-675, sous Constantin IV (668-685), alors que les armées omeyyades, installées à Cyzique, menaçaient Constantinople, une flotte arabe attaqua la Crète et y hiverna, elle fut diriger par Junadah ibn Abi Umayah al-Azdi sous le califat de Muawiya (radi Allah anhu) , Junadah en…

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Morocco’s seaside shrines

Eric Ross, academic

Wednesday, February 16th is a religious holiday in Morocco. It’s the ‘Ayd al-Mawlid, the Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (12th of Rabî’ al-Awal), an important holiday for Sufis. Moroccan shrines mark the day in a variety of ways: all-night vigils, processions, feasts, displays of horsemanship (called fantasia) and pilgrimages (called moussem Moroccan Arabic, mawsim in standard). Moussems often have a festive and playful atmosphere, especially in rural ares. The Mawlid holiday is therefore a good occasion to explore some of the shrines involved.

In cities, shrines are often located near gates, or next to specific manufacturing or commercial structures. In the countryside one encounters shrines at the summit of ridges or next to specific rock outcrops or natural springs, and they are often associated to trees and groves.

The tiny shrine of Sidi Mifta (My Lord Key) in Asilah stands outside Bab El Homar, one of the…

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A conversation with Byzantine luminary Averil Cameron.

The History of the Byzantine Empire

Theodora_mosaic_-_Basilica_San_Vitale_(Ravenna) (1).jpgAveril Cameron is one of the leading English-speaking scholars of late antiquity and Byzantium. She has made Byzantium, in particular, interesting and relevant to a generation of academics, students and history enthusiasts like myself. Her honours are many and varied, which include being a former Professor of Ancient History, Late Antiquity and Byzantine Studies at Oxford and a Warden of Keble College. In a career that has spanned a lifetime, she originally started out as a classicist and gradually became interested in the later centuries, which led to her to study Byzantium. She believes that Byzantium was the centre of the Mediterranean world, the link between east and west and a crucial civilization that deserves to be recognized amongst the great civilisations of the world. She has influenced and inspired me to read beyond the general narrative of Byzantine History. Though I have to admit that at times I struggle…

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The Commemoration of the Martyrdom of al-Husayn b. Ali (d. 680) in al-Andalus

Despite over three centuries of Umayyad political rule in al-Andalus, during which pro-Alid sentiments were discouraged and (at times) outlawed, with ‘Alī b. Abī Ṭālib and his descendants sometimes being ritually cursed from the pulpits of the mosques, the Family of the Prophet (the Ahl al-Bayt)—which includes ‘Alī and his sons al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn—remained an important focal point for popular religious devotion among Andalusi Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula. Putting aside the various pro-Alid and even Shī‘ī-inspired political movements in early medieval al-Andalus (about which I will write at a later date), much of the scholarly culture in al-Andalus within the fields of history, hadith, theology, mysticism and Qur’anic interpretation shared much in common with the broader Sunni world in considering ‘Alī (and his sons) one of the preeminent personalities of Islam whose proximity to the Prophet Muhammad and whose service to the faith deemed him worthy of major respect. Although Umayyad attempts to fabricate traditions and hadith favoring their family while condemning (or, at least, marginalizing) the Alids met with some success, it seems clear that the vast majority of Sunni scholars in al-Andalus maintained a considerable degree of respect for the Ahl al-Bayt. There were, of course, exceptions to this, such as the famous tenth-century, pro-Umayyad litterateur Ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi (d. 940) excluding the names of ‘Alī and al-Ḥasan from the name of legitimate caliphs, listing Mu‘āwiyah b. Abī Sufyān as the fourth caliph instead; interestingly, he was strongly condemned for his doing so by several contemporaries, including none other than Mundhir b. Sa’īd al-Ballūṭī (d. 966), the chief judge of Córdoba under ‘Abd al-Raḥmān III (r. 912–961). (more…)

Wisdom from Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (d. 818): On the Perfection of the Intellect

‘Alī ibn Mūsa al-Riḑa (d. 818), a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad through his grandson al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī, is recognized as the eighth Imam within the Twelver Shī‘ī tradition and is also highly revered within the Sunni tradition. The following is a translation of one of the many pieces of wisdom attributed to him. This specific passage is preserved within the Tuḥaf al-ʿuqūl of the 10th-century scholar al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAli ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Shuʿba al-Ḥarrānī (d. after 991 A.D.).

(Late 19th-century photo of the Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad, Iran) (more…)

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