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330th Anniversary of the Battle of Vienna (1683)

One of the most important military engagements in early modern European history–the Battle of Vienna–took place on this day (September 12th) in 1683. The combined forces of the Holy League (Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Saxony, Bavaria, Franconia, Hungary, and Swabia) managed to decisively defeat a much larger Ottoman force. In many ways, the battle represents a major turning point in the military struggle between the Ottoman Empire and the European Christian powers in central Europe. Shortly after their defeat, the Ottomans were forced to sign the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) which forced them to cede territory for the first time in over four centuries, thereby ending their historic military expansion on the European continent.

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The decisive Christian victory was due in large part to the cavalry charge of the Polish Hussars,  led by King Jan Sobieski III

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